Moringa oleifera commonly known as moringa is a small, fast-growing tree that usually reaches 10-12 meters in height, is native to the Himalayas, but has been introduced in different places such as: Bangladesh, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, Western Asia, the Arabian Peninsula, West Africa, Madagascar, South Florida, the Caribbean islands, South America, from Mexico to Peru, Paraguay and Brazil; It grows rapidly in favorable places increasing from 1 to 2 m per year in height during the first 3 to 4 years.
The different parts of this plant contain a profile of important minerals, and are a good source of proteins, vitamins, beta-carotene, amino acids and various phenolics. The Moringa plant provides a rich combination of zeatin, quercetin, beta-sitosterol, caffeoylquinic acid and kaempferol.
It has been used by indigenous peoples of West Africa and Dakar (Senegal), as a stimulant of chronic fatigue and to treat patients with anemia, which is why Posmontier 13 called this plant “never dies”. In India, where it is traditionally used, it has the following effects: antihypertensive, diuretic, antidiarrheal, anxiolytic, antidiabetic and is used in patients with dysentery, colitis and gonorrhea. The fomentations and cataplasms of the leaves are widely used in patients with headache, bronchitis, eye infections, otic and scurvy; suckers, for skin infections.
Moringa is a rich source of antioxidant substances, which help in the prevention of malignant formations and improve cardiovascular health, since they reduce the effect of free radicals, responsible for aging, and the general deterioration of the organism. It has been found in numerous studies that reduces oxidative damage.
Scientists identified a substance that called pterigospermina a compound that dissociated easily in 2 molecules of benzyl isothiocyanate, having an antimicrobial effect, they stand out for having demonstrated the activity of these substances against a very wide range of bacteria and even fungi.
Antihypertensive, diuretic and cholesterol lowering activities
Nitrile, mustard oil glycosides and thiocarbamate glucosides have been isolated from Moringa leaves, which were found responsible for the blood pressure lowering effect. Methylhydroxybenzoate and β- sitosterol, investigated in M. oleifera pods, have also shown promising hypotensive activity. The moringa fruit reduces serum cholesterol, phospholipids, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very low density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL) to the ratio of phospholipids, the atherogenic lipid index and the lipid profile of liver, heart and aorta, and increased the excretion of fecal cholesterol.
Antispasmodic, anti-ulcer and hepatoprotective activities
It has been reported that M. oleifera roots possess antispasmodic activity attributed to the presence of 4- [α- (L-rhamnosyloxy) benzyl] – o-methyl thiocarbamate (trans), which forms the basis of its traditional use in gastrointestinal problems . The methanol fraction of the leaf extract of M. oleifera showed antiulcerogenic and hepatoprotective effects in rats. It was found to have a significant hepatoprotective effect of quercetin, a known flavonoid with hepatoprotective activity.
Although most studies show the benefits of this plant in terms of its medicinal use, it is not exempt from toxicity, since it has been proven that its bark has abortive effects and can cause violent uterine contractions and loss of the fetus.
In different books of Ayurvedic medicine there are records about the use of M. oleifera since the eighteenth century a. C. for the treatment of asthma, epilepsy, diseases of the eyes and skin, fever,
headache, hemorrhoids, anti-helminths, kidney stones, arthritis, among other conditions.
For direct use of the leaves, a handful of 6 to 10 leaves per day is recommended as an infusion. The presentation of Moringa powder, it is recommended to administer between 3 to 5 g of moringa distributed on the day with food, for athletic people a maximum consumption of 15 grams per day is recommended. It is advisable to consume maximum 3 capsules (400 mg) of moringa a day with food.
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